at the Lake Biwa Museum, Japan

Robin James Smith

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Genus Notodromas Lilljeborg, 1853

Superfamily: Cypridoidea Baird, 1845
Family: Notodromadidae Kaufmann, 1900
Subfamily: Notodromadinae Kaufmann, 1900

One species has been reported from Japan:

1. Notodromas trulla Smith & Kamiya, 2014

Show synonymy list

1927 Notodromas monacha O. F. Müller - Komai: 1193, fig. 2302.
?1933 Notodromas monacha O. F. Muelle - Brehm: 297.
?1937 Notodromas monacha - Onoda & Murakoshi: 174-175, fig. 3.
1947 Notodromas monacha O. F. Müller - Ueno: 870, fig. 2494.
?1948 Notodromas monacha Müller - Uchida: 248, fig. 1397.
?1957 Notodromas monacha O. F. Muller - Ueno: 142, plate 71, fig. 15.
?1959 Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller) 1776 - Hanai: 433, 434.
1965 Notodromas monacha O. F. Müller - Ueno, in Ueno & Hanai: 456, fig. 425.
1977 Notodromas monacha O. F. Müller, 1776 - Hanai et al.: 21.
1979 Notodromas monacha O. F. Müller - Ueno, in Ueno & Hanai: 386, fig 1360.
1989 Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller) - Okubo & Ida: 105, pl. 1A-D.
2000 Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller, 1776) - Okubo: 106, figs 9a-e.
2003 Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller, 1776) - Okubo: 43-48, figs 1 & 2.
2004 Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller, 1776) - Okubo: 16, figs 4g-l.
2014 Notodromas sp. - Smith: 167, figs 29.1g-j.
2014 Notodromas trulla n. sp. - Smith & Kamiya: 239-256, figs 1-9, tables 1 & 2.

Status: full synonymy list

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Left side view of a male Notodromas trulla, length 0.9 mm.

Left side view of a female Notodromas trulla, length 0.8 mm.

External view of a male left valve of Notodromas trulla, length 897 microns.

External view of a female left valve of Notodromas trulla, length 808 microns.

The male sexual organ of Notodromas trulla, length 288 microns.

Additional figures in: Smith & Kamiya 2014 (carapace and appendages); Okubo & Ida (carapace, as N. monacha); Okubo 2003 (carapace and appendages, N. monacha); Okubo 2004 (carapace, N. monacha).
Habitat: Irrigation ponds, ponds and paddy fields.
Mode of life: Nektobenthic/ neustonic (is active at the water surface).
Reproductive mode: Sexual. Males common.
Known distribution: Gunma Prefecture (Okubo & Ida 1989; Okubo 2003); Kagawa Prefecture (Okubo 2003); Nagano Prefecture (Brehm 1933); Niigata Prefecture (Brehm 1933); Okayama Prefecture (Okubo 2003); Ishikawa Prefecture (Smith & Kamiya 2014); Aomori Prefecture (Smith & Kamiya 2014)
Notes: For many decades, Japanese specimens had been misidentified as the more common and widespread Notodromas monacha. However, detailed comparisons between the Japanese specimens and specimens of N. monacha from Europe revealed that they are not the same (Smith & Kamiya 2014). This species is currently only known from Japan.

Brehm, V. 1933. Einige japanische Ostracoden. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 23, 297-298.

Hanai, T. 1959. Studies on the Ostracoda from Japan: Historical review, with bibliographic index of Japanese Ostracoda. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Sec. II, 11, 419-439.

Hanai, T., Ikeya, N., Ishizaki, K., Sekiguchi, Y. & Yajima, M. 1977. Checklist of Ostracoda from Japan and its adjacent seas. University Museum, the University of Tokyo, Bulletin 12, 1-120.

Komai, T. 1927. Ostracoda. In: Uchida, S. (Ed.), Illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, pp. 1192-1195 [in Japanese].

Okubo, I. 2000 Ostracoda. In: Mizuno, T. & Takahashi, E. (Eds.), An illustrated guide to freshwater zooplankton in Japan. Tokai University Press, Hadano, 96-123 [in Japanese].

Okubo, I. 2003. The freshwater ostracod Notodromas monacha (O. F. Müller, 1776). Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 58, 43-48. [In Japanese].

Okubo, I. 2004. Nihon tansui san kaimijinko rui ni tsuite. Kabushikigaisha Sanmon Insatsusho, Okayama, Japan, 72pp. [In Japanese, privately published].

Okubo, I. & Ida, K. 1989. Freshwater Ostracoda from Gunma Prefecture, Japan (In Japanese). Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 44, 105-107.

Onoda, I. & Murakoshi, M. 1937. Doubutsu ko jiten (A Small Dictionary of Fauna). Shobunsha, Tokyo, 603 pp. [in Japanese].

Smith, R. J. 2014. Ostracoda: Podocopa. In: Martin, J.W., Olesen, J. & H√łeg, J.T. (Eds.), Atlas of Crustacean Larvae. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 165-168.

Smith, R. J. & Kamiya, T. 2014. The freshwater ostracod (Crustacea) genus Notodromas Lilljeborg, 1853 (Notodromadidae) from Japan; taxonomy, ecology and lifestyle. Zootaxa, 3841, 239-256.

Uchida, S. 1948. Arthropoda. In: Hokuryukan Henshu-bu (Ed.), Gaku sei ban, Nihon doubutsu zukan (Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Fauna of Japan, Student Edition). Hokuryukan, Tokyo, 201-252 [in Japanese].

Ueno, M. 1947. Ostracoda. In: Uchida, S. (Ed.), Illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan (Revised Edition). Hokuryukan, Tokyo, pp. 869-872 [in Japanese].

Ueno, M. 1957. Ostracoda. In: Okada, K. & Uchida, S. (Eds.), Encyclopedia Zoologica Illustrated in Colours Vol. IV. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, p. 142 [in Japanese].

Ueno, M. & Hanai, T. 1965. Ostracoda. In: Okada, K. (Ed.), New illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan (Vol. II). Hokuryukan, Tokyo, p. 453-456 [in Japanese].

Ueno, M. & Hanai, T. 1979 Ostracoda. In: Uchida, S. (Ed.), Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Fauna of Japan Newly Compiled. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, p. 386 [in Japanese].

Key characters Notodromas trulla
Carapace - ventral valve overlapLeft valve overlaps right along ventral margin
Carapace - margin structure - septaNo septa present
Carapace - margin structure - ridges on inner calcified lamellaOn left and right valves
Carapace - dorsal view - female with brood pouchBrood pouch not visible
Carapace - lateral view - ventral marginVentral margin approximately straight to concave
Carapace - lateral view - valve heightLeft and right valves similar height
Carapace - internal viewAnterior calcified inner lamella wider than posterior one
Carapace - ornamentation - denticlesNo denticles near ventral margin
Carapace - ornamentation - sulcusNo sulcus
Carapace - ornamentation - surfaceSurface smooth
Carapace - width/length ratio (w/l)Between 0.4 and 0.7 (medium species)
Antennule - segmentsSeven moveable segments
Antennule - Rome organNo Rome organ
Antenna - exopoditeExopodite reduced to small segment
Antenna - swimming setae Swimming setae long, reaching to about end of claws
Fifth limb - morphologyMaxilliped
Sixth limb - segmentsFive segments
Sixth limb - setae on first segmentNo setae
Sixth limb - h3 seta on final segmentH3 seta very long; approximately half length of claw
Seventh Limb Cleaning limb, with three setae at end
Seventh Limb - segmentsFour segments
Seventh Limb - first segmentThree setae
Caudal ramusElongate ramus with two claws and one seta
Caudal ramus - attachmentWith no loops