OSTRACOD RESEARCH

at the Lake Biwa Museum, Japan


Robin James Smith

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Genus Ilyocypris Brady & Norman, 1889

Superfamily: Cypridoidea Baird, 1845
Family: Ilyocyprididae Kaufmann, 1900
Subfamily: Ilyocypridinae Kaufmann, 1900

Five species have been reported from Korea:

1. Ilyocypris bradyi Sars, 1890

Figures in: Meisch 2000 (carapace and appendages), Karanovic & Lee 2013 (carapace and appendages).
Habitat: Stream with sand and gravel substate (Karanovic & Lee 2013). Elsewhere, reported from springs, the slow-flowing runoff of springs, and ponds fed by springs, as well as ponds, gravel pits, rivers, swamps and lakes (Meisch 2000).
Mode of life: Benthic.
Reproduction mode: Sexual in Korea, asexual elsewhere.
Known distribution: North Gyeongsang Province (Karanovic & Lee 2013). Generally, Holarctic (Meisch 2000).
Notes: Only two adult males have been reported from Korea (other specimens were juveniles) (Karanovic & Lee 2013). Elsewhere, only females are known.

References:
Karanovic I., & Lee, W. 2013. On the ostracod genus Ilyocypris, with description of one new species from Korea and the first report of males of I. bradyi (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Podocopida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 126, 39-71.

Meisch, C. 2000. Freshwater Ostracoda of Western and Central Europe. In: Schwoerbel, J., Zwick, P., (Eds.), Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa 8/3. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 522 pp.


2. Ilyocypris dentifera Sars, 1903

Figures in: Sars 1903 (carapace and caudal ramus); Victor & Fernando 1981 (carapace and and parts of appendages); Kim & Min 1991 (carapace and appendages).
Habitat: Generally considered a freshwater form, typical of rice fields, but Nakao & Tsukagoshi (2002) reported this species from a brackish estuary with a salinity of 21o/oo.
Mode of life: Nektobenthic (swimmer).
Reproduction mode: Sexual.
Known distribution: Found throughout South Korea (Kim & Min 1991). Elsewhere, Japan (Broodbakker 1988; Okubo 1990; Nakao & Tsukagoshi 2002; Tanaka et al. 2015), China (Sars 1903); Taiwan (Yu et al. 2009, citing grey literature); Philippines (Victor & Fernando 1980).
Notes: Ilyocypris dentifera and Ilyocypris angulata were both originally described by Sars (1903). Later, Victor & Fernando (1981) considered these species to be synonyms, an opinion that was followed by some authors (e.g. Martens 1991; Okubo 2004; Sari et al. 2012), but not others (e.g. Okubo 1990; Martens & Savatenalinton 2011; Karanovic & Lee 2013). It is not clear if figures in Okubo 2004 relate to I. dentifera or I. angulata.

References:
Broodbakker, N. W. 1988. Ecology and distribution of groundwater Crustacea and freshwater Ostracoda in SW Honshu and the Nansei Islands, Japan. Verlagen en Technische Gegevens Institute voor Taxonomische Zoologie, 53, 1-21.

Karanovic, I. & Lee, W. 2013. On the genus Ilyocypris, with a description of one new species from Korea and the first report of males of I. bradyi (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Podocopida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 126, 39-71.

Kim, W. & Min, G.S. 1991. Redescription of four Recent freshwater ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Korea. Korean Journal of Zoology, 34, 307-322.

Martens, K. 1991. On a small collection of non-marine ostracods from Mongolia, with the description of a new species (Crustacea, Ostracoda). Miscellanea Zoologica Hungarica, 6, 53-60.

Martens, K. & Savatenalinton, S. 2011. A subjective checklist of the Recent, free-living, non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea). Zootaxa, 2855, 1-79.

Nakao, Y. & Tsukagoshi, A. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obtsu River Estuary, Central Japan. Species Diversity, 7, 67-115.

Okubo, I. 1990. Sixteen species of freshwater Ostracoda from Japan. Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 45, 39-50.

Okubo, I. 2004. Nihon tansui san kaimijinko rui ni tsuite. Kabushikigaisha Sanmon Insatsusho, Okayama, Japan, 72pp. [In Japanese, privately published].

Sari, N., Külköylüoglu, O. & Akdemir, D. 2012. First record and detailed description of the male of Ilyocypris inermis Kaufmann, 1900 (Crustacea, Ostracoda). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 36, 484-495.

Sars, G.O. 1903. Fresh-water Entomostraca from China and Sumatra. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, 25, 3-44.

Tanaka, H., Kotorii, H., Yokozawa, K., Wakabayashi, F., Kimoto, K. & Sano, K. 2015. Distribution and occurrence of freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) from southwest region of Mt. Fuji. TAXA, Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology, 38, 26-41. [In Japanese with English abstract.]

Victor, R. and Fernando, C. H. 1980. Freshwater Ostracoda from the ricefields of South East Asia. Tropical Ecology & Development, 1980, 957-970.

Victor, R. and Fernando, C. H. 1981. Ilyocypris dentifera Sars, 1903 versus Ilyocypris angulata Sars, 1903. A taxonomic study of two species of Ilyocypris Brady and Norman, 1889 (Crustacea, Ostracoda) described from China. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 59, 1103-1110.

Yu, N., Zhao, Q., Li, E., Chen, S. & Chen, L. 2009. An updated and annotated checklist of recent nonmarine ostracods from China. Zootaxa, 2067, 29-50.


3. Ilyocypris hanguk Karanovic & Lee, 2013

Figures in: Karanovic & Lee 2013 (carapace and appendages).
Habitat: Stream with clay substrate and submerged water plants.
Mode of life: Nektobenthic (swimmer).
Reproduction mode: Sexual.
Known distribution: South Jeolla Province (Karanovic & Lee 2013). Currently only known from South Korea.

References:
Karanovic I., & Lee, W. 2013. On the ostracod genus Ilyocypris, with description of one new species from Korea and the first report of males of I. bradyi (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Podocopida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 126, 39-71.


4. Ilyocypris salebrosa Stepanaitys, 1960


Right side view of a female Ilyocypris salebrosa, length about 0.95 mm.



External view of female left valve of Ilyocypris salebrosa, length 964 microns.



External view of female right valve of Ilyocypris salebrosa, length 962 microns.



The male sexual organ of Ilyocypris salebrosa, length 209 microns.


Additional figures in: Smith et al 2011 (carapace and appendages).
Habitat: Lakes (Smith et al. 2011).
Mode of life: Nektobenthic (swimmer).
Reproduction mode: Sexual in Japan (Smith et al. 2011). Males have not be reported from other areas.
Known distribution: East coast of South Korea (Lee et al. 2000). Outside of Korea reported from Japan (Smith et al. 2011; Schornikov 2004), China (Mischke 2001), Turkey (Özulug 2005), Italy (Rossetti 2006), and Canada (Delorme 1970 as Pelocypris alatobulbosa).

References:
Delorme, L.D. 1970. Freshwater ostracodes of Canada. Part IV. Families Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Darwinulidae, Cytherideidae, and Entocytheridae. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 48, 1251-1259.

Lee, E., Huh, M. & Schornikov, E. I. 2000. Ostracod fauna from the East Sea coast of Korea and their distribution - preliminary study on Ostracoda as an indicator of water pollution. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 36, 435-472. [In Korean with English abstract.]

Mischke, S. 2001. Mid and Late Holocene palaeoenvironment of the lakes Eastern Juyanze and Sogo Nur in NW China, based on ostracod species assemblages and shell chemistry. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen E 35, 1-131.

Özulug, O. 2005. Living specimens of Ilyocypris salebrosa Stepanaitys, 1959 (Crustacea: Ostaracoda) from Thrace, Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East, 34, 114-116.

Rossetti, G., Martens, K., Meisch, C., Tavernelli, S. & Pieri, V. 2006. Small is beautiful: diversity of freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in marginal habitats of the province of Parma (Northern Italy). Journal of Limnology, 65, 121-131.

Schornikov, E. 2004. Crustacea: Ostracoda. In: Tyurin, A.N. & Drozdov, A.L. (Eds), Far-Eastern Marine Biospherical Reserve. Biota. V. 2, Vladivostok, pp. 458-465. [In Russian].

Smith, R. J., Janz, H. & Okubo, I. 2011. Recent Cyprididae and Ilyocyprididae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Lake Biwa, Japan, including a summary of the lake's ostracod fauna. Zootaxa, 2874, 1-37.


5. Ilyocypris subpulchra Yang, 1982

Figures in: Yang 1982 (carapace).
Habitat: Unknown.
Mode of life: Unknown.
Reproduction mode: Unknown.
Known distribution: East Coast of South Korea (Lee et al. 2000). Elsewhere, China (Yang 1982).

References:
Lee, E., Huh, M. & Schornikov, E. I. 2000. Ostracod fauna from the East Sea coast of Korea and their distribution - preliminary study on Ostracoda as an indicator of water pollution. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 36, 435-472. [In Korean with English abstract.]

Yang, 1982. Cretaceous-Quaternary ostracode fauna from Jiangsu. Geological Publishing House, Peking, 1-386.