at the Lake Biwa Museum, Japan

Robin James Smith

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Genus Candona Baird, 1845

Superfamily: Cypridoidea Baird, 1845
Family: Candonidae Kaufmann, 1900
Subfamily: Candoninae Kaufmann, 1900

One species has been reported from Japan:

1. Candona candida (O.F. Müller, 1776)

Show synonymy list

1776 Cypris candida - O.F. Müller: 199.
1845 Candona candida - Baird: 153 (new comb.).

Status: abbreviated synonymy list.

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Left side view of a female Candona candida, length about 1 mm. This is one of the first species of ostracod to be described using the binomial classification system, years ago. 'Candida' is derived from the Latin candidus, meaning shining white.

External view of a female left valve of Candona candida, length 1007 microns.

External view of a female right valve of Candona candida, length 980 microns.

Additional figures in: Meisch 2000 (carapace and appendages), Smith & Kamiya 2015 (carapace).
Habitat: In Japan reported from ponds, a creek, and shallow streams (Smith & Kamiya 2015). Elsewhere, reported from a wide range of habitats, including lakes, ponds, ditches, swamps, rivers, wells and subterranean waters (see Meisch 2000 for a review).
Mode of life: Benthic.
Reproductive mode: Only females reported from Japan. Males occur in small numbers elsewhere.
Known distribution: Eastern Hokkaido (Smith & Kamiya 2015). General distribution, Holarctic, but less abundant in the south (Meisch 2000).

Baird W. 1845. Arrangement of the British Entomostraca, with a list of species, particularly noticing those which have as yet been discovered within the bounds of the club. Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 2, 145-416.

Meisch, C. 2000. Freshwater Ostracoda of Western and Central Europe. In: Schwoerbel, J., Zwick, P., (Eds.), Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa 8/3. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 522 pp.

Müller O. F. 1776. Zoologiae Danicae Prodromus, seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae Indigenarum characters, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Havniae. XXXII:1-282.

Smith, R. J. & Kamiya, T. 2015. Four new species of the subfamily Candoninae (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from freshwater habitats in Japan. European Journal of Taxonomy, 136, 1-34.

Key characters Candona candida
Carapace - ventral valve overlapLeft valve overlaps right along ventral margin
Carapace - margin structure - septaNo septa present
Carapace - margin structure - ridges on inner calcified lamellaNo ridges
Carapace - dorsal view - female with brood pouchBrood pouch not visible
Carapace - lateral view - ventral marginVentral margin approximately straight to concave
Carapace - lateral view - valve heightLeft and right valves similar height
Carapace - internal viewAnterior calcified inner lamella wider than posterior one
Carapace - ornamentation - denticlesNo denticles near ventral margin
Carapace - ornamentation - sulcusNo sulcus
Carapace - ornamentation - surfaceSurface smooth
Carapace - width/length ratio (w/l)Between 0.4 and 0.7 (medium species)
Antennule - segmentsSeven moveable segments
Antennule - Rome organNo Rome organ
Antenna - exopoditeExopodite reduced to small segment
Antenna - swimming setaeNo swimming setae present
Fifth limb - morphologyMaxilliped
Sixth limb - segmentsFive segments
Sixth limb - setae on first segmentOne seta
Sixth limb - h3 seta on final segmentH3 seta short; much shorter than half length of claw
Seventh Limb Cleaning limb, with three setae at end
Seventh Limb - segmentsFour segments
Seventh Limb - first segmentTwo setae
Caudal ramusElongate ramus with two claws and two setae
Caudal ramus - attachmentWith no loops