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Lake Biwa is in central Japan and is one of the world's few ancient lakes. It is also Japan's largest freshwater lake and it has shaped the natural and cultural history of the area for a long time.

The exhibits of the Lake Biwa Museum explore the relationship between lakes and people, focusing on Lake Biwa and the changes that have occurred during its long history.

The Museum houses one of the largest freshwater aquariums in Japan, displaying many of the endemic species from the lake.